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A brief explanation what you can do with the Cryptolator and how it works
The Cryptolator encrypts and decrypts blocks of data. Each block is 16 byte long. You can define the input data, the key and for CBC mode also the Initialization Vector. A total of 3 blocks can be input at a time, but the Cryptolator works also with a single block or two. Three blocks are needed to see some special effects with CBC mode. You can encrypt or decrypt the input data. When you transfer after an encryption the result to the input fields and decrypt now, the original input appears as result.
Try this: Encrypt a block of reference data using any key and any IV in CBC mode. Transfer the result to the input. Now change a singe byte of this input in the first block only. This means at a single position the data are a little manipulated. Now decrypt using CBC mode again. Of course you have to use the same key and the same IV as used for the encryption. See the result. The first block is totally damaged, the second block is only wrong at the position where you changed the input byte and the third block is correct. If there were more blocks all the following blocks would be correct. This is called the self-synchronizing effect of a CBC block cipher. Meaning, if you transmit a message and the receiver knows only the key but not the IV he can still use the message if you make the message at the front two blocks longer. These two blocks must not contain any meaningful data, they could be filled with random or with zeros. Using random, either as IV or as filling blocks has the effect that two identical messages encrypted with the same key look totally different (all blocks) each time. This is a nice hiding effect.
The AES algorithm uses a S-Box as non linear element in the algorithm. This S-Box can be manipulated in order to see the effect of the box on the encryption. You can use the standard AES box, a random generated AES box or define one by yourself. There are 256! different boxes possible. This is a decimal number with 506 digits.
NIST provides the detailed AES standard FIPS197
PS.: The next version of the Cryptolator will provide functions to test some quality parameters on the S-Boxes.
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